Xem Nhiều 12/2022 #️ How To Write A Good Conclusion Paragraph / 2023 # Top 19 Trend | Trucbachconcert.com

Xem Nhiều 12/2022 # How To Write A Good Conclusion Paragraph / 2023 # Top 19 Trend

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How to Write a Good Conclusion Paragraph

Parents, does your student need assistance with writing a concluding paragraph? Our teachers can help. Sign up for either our Middle School Essay Writing or High School Essay Writing course for 1-on-1 guidance.

How to Write A Conclusion

In a conclusion paragraph, you summarize what you’ve written about in your paper. When you’re writing a good conclusion paragraph, you need to think about the main point that you want to get across and be sure it’s included. If you’ve already written a fabulous introductory paragraph, you can write something similar with different wording. Here are some points to remember:

Use your introductory paragraph as a guide. You may have started by saying, “There are three classes at school that I absolutely can’t wait to go to every day.” You can start your conclusion by saying, “Gym, Math, and Art are the three classes I try to never miss.”

If it’s a longer paper, a good place to start is by looking at what each paragraph was about. For example, if you write a paper about zoo animals, each paragraph would probably be about one particular animal. In your conclusion, you should briefly mention each animal again. “Zoo animals like polar bears, lions, and giraffes are amazing creatures.”

Leave your readers with something to think about. Suggest that they learn more with a sentence like, “We have a lot to learn about global warming.” You can also give them something to do after reading your paper. For example, “It’s easy to make your own popsicles. Grab some orange juice and give it a try!”

Summary: How to Make a Good Conclusion Paragraph

Remember that it’s important to wrap up your writing by summarizing the main idea for your readers. This brings your writing to a smooth close and creates a well-written piece of work.

What is a conclusion paragraph?

A conclusion is what you will leave with your reader

It “wraps up” your essay

It demonstrates to the reader that you accomplished what you set out to do

It shows how you have proved your thesis

It provides the reader with a sense of closure on the topic

Structure

A conclusion is the opposite of the introduction

Remember that the introduction begins general and ends specific

The conclusion begins specific and moves to the general

Essay Structure

So, if we use shapes to demonstrate the essay’s content, it would look like this:

Introduction

Thesis statement

Body of Essay

Rephrased thesis statement

Conclusion

What to include

Your conclusion wraps up your essay in a tidy package and brings it home for your reader

Your topic sentence should summarize what you said in your thesis statement

This suggests to your reader that you have accomplished what you set out to accomplish

Do not simply restate your thesis statement, as that would be redundant

Rephrase the thesis statement with fresh and deeper understanding

Your conclusion is no place to bring up new ideas

Your supporting sentences should summarize what you have already said in the body of your essay

If a brilliant idea tries to sneak into the final paragraph, you must pluck it out and let it have its own paragraph in the body, or leave it out completely

Your topic for each body paragraph should be summarized in the conclusion

Wrap up the main points

Your closing sentence should help the reader feel a sense of closure

Your closing sentence is your last word on the subject; it is your “clincher”

Demonstrate the importance of your ideas

Propel your reader to a new view of the subject

End on a positive note

Your closing sentence should make your readers glad they read your paper

Strategies for an effective conclusion

Play the “So What” Game.

When you read a statement from the conclusion, ask yourself, “So what?” or “Why should anybody care?”

Ponder that question and answer it

Basically, I’m just saying that education was important to Douglass

So what?

Well, it was important because it was a key to him feeling like a free and equal citizen

Why should anybody care?

That’s important because plantation owners tried to keep slaves from being educated so that they could maintain control. When Douglass obtained an education, he undermined that control personally.

Return to the theme or themes in the introduction

This brings the reader full circle

If you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay is helpful in creating a new understanding

Refer to the introductory paragraph by using key words, or parallel concepts and images that you also used in the introduction

Summarize

Include a brief summary of the paper’s main points, but don’t simply repeat things that were in the paper

Pull it all together

Show your reader how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together

Include a provocative insight or quotation from the research or reading you did for the paper

Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study

Point to broader implications

A paper about the style of writer, Virginia Woolf, could point to her influence on other writers or later feminists

Concluding strategies that do not work

Beginning with an unnecessary, overused phrase

These may work in speeches, but they come across as wooden and trite in writing

“in conclusion”

“in summary”

“in closing”

“as shown in the essay”

Stating the thesis for the very first time

Introducing a new idea or subtopic in your conclusion

Making sentimental, emotional appeals that are out of character with the rest of the paper

Including evidence (quotations, statistics, etc.) that should be in the body of the paper

Ineffective conclusions

“That’s My Story and I’m Sticking to It”

Restates the thesis and is usually painfully short

Does not push ideas forward

Written when the writer can’t think of anything else to say

Example

In conclusion, Frederick Douglass was, as we have seen, a pioneer in American education, proving that education was a major force for social change with regard to slavery.

“Sherlock Holmes”

State the thesis for the first time in the conclusion

Writer thinks it would be more dramatic to keep the reader in suspense and then “wow” them with the main idea, as in a Sherlock Holmes mystery

Readers want an analytical discussion of the topic in academic style, with the thesis statement up front

“America the Beautiful”

Draws on emotion to make its appeal

Out of character with the rest of the paper

“Grab Bag”

Includes extra information thought of or found but couldn’t integrate into the main body

Creates confusion for the reader

Conclusion outline

Topic sentence

Fresh rephrasing of thesis statement

Supporting sentences

Summarize or wrap up the main points in the body of the essay

Explain how ideas fit together

Closing sentence

Final words

Connects back to the introduction

Provides a sense of closure

More Concluding Paragraph Resources

Paragraph Writing: How To Write A Good Paragraph / 2023

When you create an essay outline, you will probably list ideas that need to be included in your essay. If you’re thinking clearly, each of these ideas would have a paragraph to itself. If some of the ideas you jotted down are closely related, they’d probably form part of the same paragraph.

Crafting a Paragraph

In a way, you could see each paragraph as a mini-essay.

You introduce the topic

You provide the contributing information

You draw a conclusion

But how do you know if you have crafted a good paragraph? It will have four characteristics:

You achieve these four characteristics through using the three parts of your paragraph wisely and with forethought.

First Sentence

Contributing Sentences

Your contributing sentences must lead logically to the concluding one. This means you need to present it in some kind of order. Will you choose chronological order, order of importance, or relate each successive sentence to the other using logic? That depends on what you are writing about, but your aim is to make your paragraph easy to follow from point A to point B to point C. Finally, you want to tie all your points together to underline the point you are trying to get across. Order helps to convey the sense of what you are saying. If you confuse your reader, you have not written a clever paragraph.

Order Should Bring Coherence

Have you ever listened to someone talking, and it sounds like they’re just babbling and not making any sense? They are speaking incoherently. When a person speaks coherently, each thought follows neatly from the previous one, and it is easy to understand what they are saying. Although it’s not a must, using transition words helps to show how one thought relates to another. There are many such words and phrases which include:

Another important trick to remember is to keep all your sentences in the same verb tense. It just makes it so much easier for your reader to follow your thoughts.

Your Concluding Sentence

Practice

Writing a really good paragraph is something of an art, but like any skill, you can learn it through practice. That’s why teachers will set paragraph writing tasks for their students. But if you love writing, or just want to improve your writing skills, there’s no reason why you shouldn’t set yourself a few tasks. Choose from a list of paragraph writing prompts, or make up a list of your own.

Here are some ideas:

Why I enjoy my hobby so much

My favorite winter activity

Why I admire my best friend

The thing I’m most scared of

What I dreamed last night

Remember, keep it to one paragraph! After you’ve written it, leave it for a while because it’s hard to evaluate your own work right away. Later, go and look at your exercise. Ask yourself:

What is my opening sentence?

Do my other points support it?

Did I reach a conclusion, and does it match the opening sentence and the supporting ones?

Have I presented my information in a logical way? Could I have done it better?

Writing a paragraph isn’t all that difficult, but you can’t just run at it like a bull at a gate. If you think things through, you’ll find yourself naturally falling in with the rules we’ve discussed here. Thoughtful work is usually good work, so engage your grey matter and get writing!

Good Conclusion Starters For Final Paragraphs / 2023

The way you end a work of writing is just as important as the hook you use to capture readers’ attention and the content in between. The concluding paragraph or section of your paper should begin with words telling readers that the content is drawing to a close. Review some examples of good conclusion sentence starters so you’ll be able to craft appropriate endings of your own.

conclusion starter ideas

Characteristics of Effective Conclusion Starters

When it’s time to bring your work to an end, it’s important to sum up the key points or concepts rather than simply stopping abruptly. Conclusion starters are transitional phrases that let readers know they have reached the final part of a document. Conclusion starters should:

be just a few words that introduce the first sentence of the final paragraph or brief concluding section

let readers know that they have reached the beginning of the final section

make readers aware that what they’re about to read won’t provide new information

set readers expectations for how the work will be drawn to a close (such as a summary of main points, statement of need for additional research, or call to action)

Conclusion Starter Ideas for Essays and Speeches

Whether you’re a student in college, high school or middle school, chances are that you will be assigned to write quite a few essays and deliver many speeches or presentations. When deciding how to end an essay or a speech, you’ll need to choose a conclusion starter that’s appropriate for the overall tone.

Examples of conclusion paragraph starter words and phrases include:

all things considered

clearly

given these points

I feel we have no choice but to conclude

in conclusion

in drawing to a close

in general

in light of this information

in my opinion

in summary

in the final analysis

nevertheless

now that you know

overall

the logical conclusion seems to be

to summarize

to sum up

ultimately

upon considering all the facts

upon exploring the situation from multiple perspectives

what else can we conclude but that

what other conclusion can we draw from

when considered from the perspective of

when faced with the question of

with all this in mind

Sample Conclusion Starters for Research Papers

Phrases you might use to start your research paper conclusion include:

as a result

as expected, the results indicate

as indicated by the data

based on the evidence presented

based on the results of this study, it seems

based on what is known at this point in time

data seem to indicate

in light of these results

in the context of x, it seems that

in the final analysis

surprisingly, the data revealed

the data clearly indicate

the data reveal

the major revelation from this study is

the results of this study demonstrate

the results of this study seem to indicate

to extrapolate from the data

upon analyzing the data

upon review of these findings

what this study reveals is

what we now know is

while additional research is needed

while further study is warranted

while these results seem to indicate

with results like these, it seems

Less Formal Conclusion Starter Examples

Some writing is much less formal than a research paper or school assignment, or you may even get assigned to write an informal essay that calls for more of a personal touch than an academic tone. In such cases, you may want to opt for a conclusion starter with a more laid-back, conversational tone like these examples.

after all has been said and done

as I see things

at the end of the day

beyond a shadow of a doubt

in a nutshell

in case you’ve wondered

in simple terms

my personal take on

on the whole

the time has come

to cut a long story short

to cut to the chase

to get to the heart of the matter

to plainly state the facts

to wrap this up

what are we to think about

what I believe to be true

what it boils down to

what I think is

when all is said and done

who knew that

without all the mumbo jumbo

Build Your Conclusion Writing Expertise

Writing good conclusions is certainly an important skill for all writers to have, from students to those who write or do public speaking for a living (and all writers in between). Now that you have some ideas of good conclusion starters, focus on how to write a conclusion in full. Begin by exploring some conclusion examples.

How To Write A Captivating Essay Conclusion / 2023

You may be surprised when we say that an essay conclusion is, in some ways, comparable to a piece of text as emotive as say, Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech. Sounds ridiculous? Perhaps. But, extravagant comparisons aside, what we mean here is that the core purpose of an essay conclusion can be compared to the end of any great speech, monologue or presentation that leaves you feeling something. Ultimately, when you conclude an essay, you want to engage the reader’s emotions, whether they be excitement, surprise, contemplation, or a mix of these and more. And you want to do this in much the same way that Martin Luther King would have done with his captivated audience on that memorable day in 1963.

Conclusions are among the hardest parts of an essay to write well. You need to round off your essay effectively. You need to leave your reader with the best possible impression of your work. And, you need to somehow recap all your central points without simply repeating yourself. Sound like a tricky balancing act? We explain it all in more depth below – read on for our tips on how to conclude an essay effectively.

How do I conclude an essay?

What is a conclusion? It’s a question that seems, on the face of it, to have a perfectly simple answer. It’s the paragraph (or so) at the end of your essay where you bring your essay to a stop by recapping your central arguments, right? Easy.

If we asked you to list a few synonyms for an essay conclusion, we’re willing to bet you’d come up with a few words or phrases like “recap”, “summary”, “restatement of your thesis”, and so on. And it’s true you’re likely to find all of these somewhere in the conclusion of an essay.

“Words and phrases like ‘recap’, ‘summary’ and ‘restatement of your thesis’ don’t accurately describe what an essay conclusion is. A conclusion is so much more, and a lot hinges on how well it is done.”

OK then, how do I avoid concluding an essay badly?

Before we get to answering the question of what an essay conclusion is, it’s useful to spend a moment thinking about some of the things an essay conclusion isn’t.

It’s not a repeat of your introduction.Every university instructor has encountered an essay where a student has copied and pasted, almost word-for-word, their introduction at the bottom of their essay. It should be obvious that there’s no point in doing this. You’re just eating up words by repeating the same information over again. And if a conclusion were simply a rehash of the introduction, there wouldn’t be any point in ending the essay with it. You could just end with your final body paragraph argument. Or, if you really wanted your reader to read the introduction again and remind themselves of your central arguments, you could simply say something like, “See introduction”!

OK, so copying and pasting the introduction is an extreme example, and you’re probably thinking “there’s no way I’d do something like that.” But it’s fairly common for students to conclude an essay by simply rephrasing their introduction. Just paraphrasing yourself while retaining all the content of your introduction isn’t a whole lot different from the copy-paste job. You’re still just going through the motions and repeating the same information without really getting to grips with the dedicated function a conclusion is supposed to fulfil.

It’s not just a summary of your body paragraphs.Another common trap students fall into is to view the essay conclusion simply as a recap. They conclude an essay by providing a concise summary of each of the arguments they’ve made. This kind of recap can form an important part of your conclusion, especially in longer essays where you’ve made a series of complex arguments. But, as with repeating your introduction, eating up valuable word count simply to rehash stuff you’ve already said is redundant and doesn’t fulfil any sort of rhetorical or persuasive function.

It’s not a place to add new content or make new arguments.Yes, your essay conclusion shouldn’t be simply a recap, a summary, or a repeat of what you’ve already written in your essay. But it is a place where you reflect on the arguments you’ve made rather than starting to introduce anything new.

And here’s where the whole business of how to conclude an essay starts to get a bit complicated. If a conclusion is neither simply a recap of old information nor a place for new information, what is it, exactly?

A conclusion is a sales pitch!

If you’ve been paying attention you may have seen that we’ve already mentioned “rhetoric” a couple of times so far in this post – and this is no accident. You can’t really talk about essay conclusions without talking about rhetoric. The conclusion to an essay is the most purely rhetorical part of the entire piece.

By “rhetorical”, we mean a conclusion’s (and indeed the entire essay’s) ability to convince or persuade the reader of certain outlooks or arguments. An essay conclusion needs to use rhetoric to emotionally connect with the reader in some way. And this is done through the use of certain language and the way the information is presented.

If alarm bells are starting to ring at the mention of rhetoric, quiet them. Rhetoric gets a bad name in public discourse. Phrases like “pure rhetoric” or “empty rhetoric” are often used to suggest that an utterance lacks substance or integrity, or is somehow dishonest or insincere. And those are the last things you want your reader to take away from reading your essay! But rhetoric is one of the oldest scholarly disciplines in the world. In Classical societies – and in fact right up to the beginning of the twentieth century – it was considered one of the most important disciplines throughout Western society. The fact that it’s acquired something of a bad name over the last hundred years or so doesn’t mean it’s not still the foundation of good writing.

More importantly, your rhetorical skills can make a huge difference to whether your reader actually buys your argument. Let’s say we have two writers. One is skilled in rhetoric; the other less so. Both could make an identical set of arguments with the same supporting evidence and elicit entirely different responses in their readers. It’s true that the excessive use of rhetorical flourishes can rub your reader up the wrong way. It could cause them to think your essay is more about style than substance. But the subtler cues – in the way you phrase, structure, and present your arguments – can unquestionably make the difference between winning over a sceptical audience and leaving them unmoved.

“How you phrase, structure, and present arguments in your essay conclusion can make the difference between winning over a sceptical audience and leaving them unmoved – which could easily make a difference to your overall grade.”

So what does all this have to do with how you conclude an essay? This can all seem a bit abstract when we’re dealing with essay writing, so let’s try an analogy. Let’s imagine you’re delivering a sales pitch for a property company. That company is trying to sell waterfront properties in a desirable holiday location – the Caribbean, say. Your audience is a set of moderately well-off individuals who regularly take expensive holidays. But, they’re not sure they can afford to buy a second home in the Caribbean. Even if they can afford it, they’re unclear if it would be a good investment.

But your customers will also want to know other details: can they let the property while they’re not using it, for example? What kind of returns will that bring, and will these be enough to offset the purchase price? How are properties taxed in the area? And how about the facilities the local authority will provide? What kind of sanitation and waste facilities does the property have? Is it connected to a sewer or does it use a septic tank?

If the buyer is going to sign on the dotted line when it’s all done, you’re going to have to provide convincing answers to all of these questions. But simply recapping your arguments in order isn’t going to end the presentation effectively. You don’t want the lingering thought in your audience’s mind to be taxes or sewage. And you certainly don’t want to hit them with any new detail in your closing few slides. In fact, you don’t really want them to leave the presentation with any of the details you’ve discussed uppermost in their mind. Dwelling on any of the details is likely to remind them that buying and owning property is time-consuming, expensive, and stressful.

The impression you want to leave them with is that of having their very own place in the sun. An island paradise that’s theirs to return to any time they want to. You don’t want them leaving the building still musing over any of the specific points of your sales pitch. They need to be moved by the overall effect – and the promise – of what you’ve offered them. Sun on their backs, sand between their toes, and a crystal-clear blue ocean stretching out ahead of them.

So how does this help me conclude an essay?

OK, we get it. You’re not selling anybody a beach getaway when you conclude an essay. But what the above analogy describes is rhetoric. In an essay, you are making a pitch. And the same principles as the property sales example above apply.

Your essay conclusion is your parting shot. It’s your opportunity to leave your reader with a favourable impression of the arguments you’ve just made. You want them, at minimum, to be convinced that you’ve achieved what you set out to achieve; that you’ve proved your points. Better yet, you want them to feel satisfied that you’ve taken them on an intellectual journey that was interesting and rewarding.

Best of all, though, is if you leave them with a feeling of excitement. Excitement that your essay promises a new way of thinking about a topic, or a promising line of intellectual inquiry. The scholarly equivalent of feeling sand between their toes, in other words.

My five-paragraph essay has to be exciting? How do you propose I manage that?

Here’s a note if you’re writing an essay using a formulaic structure like the five-paragraph, three-argument essay. With these formulaic essays it’s even more important that you don’t simply regurgitate your introduction in your conclusion. The key to concluding an essay of any length or complexity is persuading your reader that there’s been development between the start and end of the essay. They must end knowing more than they did at the start. The same applies for five-paragraph essays.

Let’s consider an example where you’re writing a five-paragraph essay about Shakespeare’s famous Sonnet 18, and you’ve been asked to examine some of the formal features of the sonnet. We’ll take a look at a sample introduction that concisely outlines the thesis of the essay, and then think about how we might conclude such an essay effectively. (Note: this example contains some fairly detailed literary-critical terminology, but you don’t need to understand this to be able to follow along.)

Introduction:William Shakespeare’s Sonnet 18 (“Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?”) is one of his best-known sonnets and deals with themes of eternal love, ageing, and the nature of art. This essay explores how Shakespeare uses the formal structure of the sonnet, together with small but significant variations in the meter, and the conceit of the changing seasons, to explore these themes.Body paragraphs:

[ Body paragraph 1: the structure of an English sonnet, the use of the “turn” at the start of the third quatrain, and the couplet at the end that presents a neat summary of the poem’s message about the timelessness of art in the face of human ageing.]

[ Body paragraph 2: the generally regular use of iambic pentameter in the sonnet, and the effects of strategic substitutions, in particular the replacement of the first iambic foot in line 3 with a spondaic foot, and its introduction of a note of restlessness and discord after the harmonious opening two lines.]

[ Body paragraph 3: the conceit of the changing seasons that runs through the entire poem, and the ways in which Shakespeare uses the sonnet structure to explore different aspects of this theme.]

Bad essay conclusion (rephrasing of the thesis statement, lacking any development):

Sonnet 18 explores the themes of love, ageing, and art through the extended metaphor of the changing seasons. Shakespeare uses the sonnet’s formal structure, variations in the iambic pentameter meter, and the conceit of summer changing into winter, to explore these eternal themes.

Better essay conclusion (recaps on central points and makes some attempt to draw them together):

In Sonnet 18, Shakespeare explores the themes of love, ageing, and art through the extended metaphor of the changing seasons. Shakespeare uses both the meter and structure of the sonnet to maximise the effectiveness of this metaphor. Metrical variations like the spondaic substitution at the start of the third line maximise the drama of this metaphor. By making use of the formal structure of the sonnet – especially the “turn” at the start of the third quatrain – Shakespeare is able to explore different facets of his central conceit of summer changing into winter.

Best essay conclusion (recaps central points but makes the key links between them explicit and gestures towards broader implications):

Shakespeare’s sonnets are among the most celebrated sequences of poems in the English language, and Sonnet 18 provides several important illustrations of why this is. The formal techniques Shakespeare uses to explore the poem’s central conceit of changing seasons are often very subtle, but demonstrate a mastery of the sonnet form that enhances his exploration of his central conceit of the changing seasons. We have seen, for example, how minor metrical variations have a powerful impact on the poem’s message, like the use of the spondaic foot “Rough winds” in place of an iambic foot at the start of the third line, which introduces a note of conflict into the seemingly harmonious simile with which he begins the sonnet. And the archetypal sonnet “turn” that Shakespeare deploys at the start of the third quatrain allows him to convey a profound message about the redemptive, eternal power of art, transforming a melancholy lament on the process of ageing into a triumphant celebration of the poem itself.

As you’ll see from these three examples, there are many different ways to conclude an essay and recap on its central points. Each of the above essay conclusions could apply to the same basic thesis statement and three body paragraphs, but they would have radically different effects on the overall way a reader interprets the value of these arguments.

Our first example simply restates the thesis without displaying any significant development. The points made in the three body paragraphs are simply presented in the conclusion as a list. This creates an overall effect of disjointedness (often a major problem for five-paragraph essays).

The second example demonstrates the bare minimum a reader should expect from a conclusion. It creates a sense of development through the essay by revisiting some of the detail of the body paragraphs and attempting to draw links between them.

However, the third example represents a much more convincing “sales pitch” for this kind of essay. It groups together the various body paragraph arguments into a single unifying theme. In this case, it’s the idea that Shakespeare’s greatness as a poet rests in his mastery of form and content, and his ability to weave the two subtly into a poem that first descents into a lament on the ravages of ageing and then abruptly turns into a celebration of art and poetry.

What makes this conclusion example really stand out from the other two is its sense of balance between recap and sales pitch. Although it doesn’t introduce any new content, it does gesture towards broader implications for the arguments presented in the essay. For example, it highlights Shakespeare’s greatness as a poet and a master of form. The effect on a mundane, humdrum five-paragraph essay is quite transformative. The essay conclusion takes the contents of a fairly bog-standard, elementary literary-critical argument and makes them seem exciting and relevant.

A conclusion can’t save a bad essay, of course. But if you conclude an essay with the right sales pitch you can make even fairly elementary arguments sparkle!

How (and how not) to conclude an essay – dos and don’ts

The examples above offer some good pointers to help you conclude an essay in the most persuasive possible way. Here’s a summary of what we’ve learned:

Do sell it.If your introduction and body paragraphs are where you lay the solid groundwork for your essay, your conclusion is where you convince your reader that what they’ve read represented a fun, insightful, intellectual journey that was worth their time. Don’t be afraid of rhetoric when you’re looking to conclude an essay – make the biggest, boldest pitch you can for the value of what you’ve argued.

Do pull it all together.When you conclude an essay, you’re not only trying to convince your reader of the merit of your individual points or body paragraphs. You’re also making the case that your essay represented a unified, coherent whole. If you include one new thing in your introduction, make it an explicit theme that unifies all of your points and convinces your reader that your essay is a single, flowing, logical unit.

Do be speculative.The conclusion to an essay is the one place where you get to bend the rules just a little bit. Throughout the rest of your essay you need to be scrupulously careful not to make assertions you can’t back up. But it’s expected that your conclusion gestures broadly – and slightly speculatively – towards the implications of your argument. Don’t go nuts and claim your argument will change the world, of course. That’s wholly unsupportable and comes across as ludicrous and overblown – the “bad” kind of rhetoric. But you should be aiming to excite your reader. You can often do this by suggesting that there’s an urgent need to change approach to a problem or view it in a new way.

Don’t just rehash your thesis.The absolute least effective way you can conclude an essay is to simply repeat what you’ve already said in your introduction. You’ll create a sense of stagnation which is the very opposite of the sense of progression and dynamism you’re trying to create. This is especially true if your essay is short.

Don’t introduce whole new arguments.It’s true, your essay conclusion should revisit your arguments in a fresh way, whether that’s by underlying a unifying theme or gesturing towards the implications of what you’ve written. But you still need to conclude your essay by reflecting on arguments you’ve already made, not by introducing new ones.

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